Monkeypox Symptoms, Comparative Analysis Seen with Covid-19 and Powerful Impact Found on AMR

Monkey pox virus is member of the genus Ortho poxvirus in the family Poxviridae, also known as mpox. Clade I and II are the virus’s two genetic subgroups. The World Health Organization proclaimed the monkey pox outbreak, also known as the mpox outbreak, a “public health emergency of international concern” on July 20, 2022.

What are Monkeypox Symptoms?

Monkeypox disease is a viral disease also called mpox spreading globally among homosexuals. The discomforting and severe monkeypox symptoms, also known as mpox, include fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, a blistery skin rash, mucosal lesions, low energy, and enlarged lymph nodes. Typically, symptoms like a fever, headache, and sore throat come on first, followed by a skin rash anywhere on the body.

Comparison of Monkeypox and Covid-19

Amidst the chaos of the deadly COVID-19 pandemic, monkey pox or mpox became major concern worldwide. There are some similarities and few substantial differences between COVID-19 infection and monkey pox which will be discussed in this article. Following table will compare monkeypox symptoms and covid 19 symptoms as well

monkeypox vs covid

 COVID-19Monkey pox or mpox
Type of infectionViral (SARS-CoV-2 virus)Viral (Orthopoxvirus)
Animal originZoonotic (Originated from Wild bats)Zoonotic (Monkey)
TransmissionHighly contagious (human-to-human transmission)Contagious but less than covid-19 (human-to-human transmission)
Fatality rateHigh fatality rateLower case fatality rate
Severe complicationsHigh number of cases with severe complications aFewer cases of severe complications and painful monkeypox symptoms
SpreadRespiratory virus spreads through aerosol or dropletsSpreads through direct contact with wound or body fluids, respiratory spread may occur due to close face to face contact
RecoveryLonger duration of recovery with treatmentRecover within a few weeks without the need for treatment.  
VaccineVaccine was not available and it took over a year to find a suitable vaccine to prevent infectionSmallpox vaccine available  (antiviral drugs are effective against smallpox are approved to treat monkeypox)
monkeypox vs covid

Implications of Covid-19 and monkeypox on antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance is the phenomenon which accelerate due to overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs rendering them ineffective for further use. Any viral pandemic like Covid-19 and Monkeypox are treated mainly through supportive treatment of prophylactic antibiotic therapy to treat secondary infection in the infected patient to reduce severity of the infection.

It is revealed that self-medication, incorrect diagnosis or treatment and use of antibiotics in uncomplicated infection may enhance antibiotic consumption during viral outbreaks. A study during early pandemic of COVID-19 reported 82.3 percent patients were prescribed antibiotics without any severity of COVID-19 symptoms.

Therefore, in this pandemic situation antibiotic resistance may be accelerated due to lack of knowledge and concern for outbreak. Considering the previous experience of sharp increase in antimicrobial resistance in COVID-19 pandemic it is expected that there will be similar increase in antibiotic consumption in monkeypox outbreak worldwide.

Monekypox symptoms pictures

Antibiotic consumption to treat monkeypox symptoms– preliminary data

Few studies conducted after few weeks of registered case in Europe reported bacterial super infections which required intensive treatment. treatments. Already second and 3rd generation antibiotics were used to treat monkeypox symptoms as prophylactic or empirical therapy which is exacerbating antibiotic resistance issue.

Moreover, a study in Jordan revealed that 48 percent students believe that the treatment of monkeypox symptoms is through antibiotics, 41 percent were unaware and 11 percent answered correctly. This study shows the alarming situation for rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance especially in under-developed or developing countries where education level is low and people self-medicate due to over the counter antibiotic availability in market

There should be emphasize on correct diagnosis and prophylactic use of antibiotics should be discouraged WHO strongly condemns the prophylactic, empirical and off the label use of antibiotics without any proper diagnosis. Misuse of antibiotics to treat monkeypox symptoms will further aggravate antimicrobial resistance spread.Therefore, it is important to take preventive measures like

  • Water sanitation measures ,
  • Take strict hygienic measures and
  • Avoid direct or sexual contact

All these preventive measures will help

  • to stop monkeypox spread
  • to avoid getting infection and
  • subsequent use of antibiotics for treatment of monkeypox symptoms which may develop antimicrobial resistance during the pandemic.