6 Deadly Bacterial Pandemic (Bubonic Plague) in Human History You Need to Know


What does Bubonic plague mean? Bubonic plague was the most common type of pandemic during the bacterial plague pandemics. The name originated due to typical black sores appeared on whole body due to internal haemorrhages known as “buboes” Symptoms of bubonic plague were severe swelling in the groin and armpits (the lymph nodes), raging fever and … Read more

What is Antibiotic Selection Pressure? and How Antibiotic Exposure Develop AMR


 “Antibiotic selection pressure exerts “Snowball rolling downhill effect” in a bacterial population contributing to increasingly emerging antibiotic resistance”. What is Antibiotic Selection Pressure? Bacterial cells have inherent ability to develop resistance mechanism gradually against any chemical or drug which is continuously exposed to bacteria and this phenomenon is called selection pressure. Bacterial cells in the … Read more

Conjugative Plasmids and Critical Role of R Plasmid in Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance


Plasmids can be broadly classified into conjugative plasmids and non-conjugative plasmids on the basis of function. Conjugative and non-conjugative plasmids are further divided into different types of plasmid as discussed below Non-conjugative types of plasmid Non conjugative plasmids are the plasmids which carry set of genes which do not contribute in sexual conjugation among bacterial cells … Read more

Types of Plasmid, Classification and Their Role in Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Dissemination


There are different types of plasmid and they are classified into different categories on the basis of size, function, genetic content, host range and replication mode. What are Plasmids? Plasmids are genetic elements found inside bacterial cell. These are small, circular piece of DNA, an extrachromosomal genetic element, which replicate by their selves independent of … Read more

Important Factors Of AMR Emergence and How Antimicrobial Resistance Spread?


How Antimicrobial Resistance Spread and Emerge? How antimicrobial resistance spread? Antimicrobial resistance is a phenomenon that emerges and spreads through a complex process or antimicrobial resistance mechanisms which involves Basically emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a natural process and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms are already present in bacteria genetically. However, human activities for example overuse and … Read more

Important Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance Resulting in AMR Spread

horizontal gene transfer antibiotic resistance

Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance Types There are two basic mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria which contribute in spread & dissemination of antibiotic resistance including Intrinsic Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance Intrinsic (natural) resistance, mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, is defines as the innate ability of the bacterial specie or genus to resist particular class of drugs. … Read more

18 New Antibiotics Under Clinical trial of Drug Discovery Pipeline


Why New Antibiotic Drug Discovery is Important? Since discovery of first antibiotic by Alexander Fleming, antibiotics are continuously used to treat deadly bacterial infections and they are still in excessive use. But with the passage of time no multidrug resistant bacteria or “super bugs” infections and outbreaks are rapidly rising which is alarming because because … Read more

Lack of New Drug Developments: Antibiotics Under Clinical Development

drug development

The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017 published a report showing serious concerns about new drug developments and antibiotic discovery under clinical trials or antibiotic development pipeline. WHO New drug developments are the need of time due to rapidly spreading drug resistance bacteria but new antibiotics pipeline has fewer drugs which are not sufficient for … Read more

Superbug Alert: Six Deadliest Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Emerging Rapidly


Multidrug resistant bacteria or “super bugs” are emerging rapidly nowadays causing deadly infections becuase of ineffectiveness of available antimicrobials or treatment options. World Health Organization Multidrug Resistant or Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)–Producing Bacteria Firstly, ESBL producing gram negative species of bacteria especially Enterobacteriaceae are identified to possess acquired resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics by production of enzymes … Read more

All you need to know about how bacterial chromosome play important role in AMR spread


What is bacterial chromosome or genome? Bacterial chromosome and plasmid called bacterial genome is the whole set of genomic/genetic material found in the form of double helix DNA within the bacterial chromosome(s) of a bacteria including genes and non-coding regions. What does bacterial genomics mean? Every organisms on the Earth carries a genome which encodes … Read more